Calculating Grades

Overview

In the Grade Center, an Instructor can calculate grades by combining multiple columns to attain performance results, such as class averages, final grades that are based on a weighted scale, or total points, and so on. These are called Calculated Columns. These columns, which display performance results, can be displayed to students or remain accessible to only the Instructor, TA, and Grader. The possible Calculated Columns include the following:

These can be used at the Instructor’s discretion to create any calculation that may facilitate the Instructor’s organization, measurement or vigilance of a Course.

 

Note: New Courses or Restored Course will contain two created columns: a Total Points column and a Weighted Grade column. The user must configure the settings of these two columns.

 

Tip: To keep a Calculated Column in view, despite the addition of other columns, freeze the column. For more information on this, see Freezing Columns.

About Weighted Grades

A Weighted Grade is a Calculated Column that displays the calculated result of quantities and their respective percentages. A Weighted Grade can be displayed as a column in the Grade Center. Instructors control the visibility of the column in the Grade Center as well as controlling the release of the column to students and other users.

For example, an Instructor may create a Weighted Grade column that calculates a quarterly grade (grade for one quarter of the year), in which each Category, such as Test, Survey, and Assignment are given a certain percentage of the final quarter's grade. Alternatively, the Instructor may create a Weighted Grade that is the final grade for a course, with the quarters and exams included in the Weighted Grade.

Instructors can create any number of Weighted Grade columns, including Weighted Grade columns that include other Weighted Grade columns. For example

(Quiz = 20%) + (Homework = 10%) + (Participation = 20%) + (Exam = 50%) = (Quarter Grade)

(Quarter 1 = 25%) + (Quarter 2 = 25%) + (Quarter 3 = 25%) + (Quarter 4 = 25%) = (Year Grade)

Instructors can create a Weighted Grade based on any column, or any Category in the Grade Center.

 

Note: Any Grade Center columns with text as the primary display cannot be used in the Weighted Grade calculation.

Simple Weighted Grade Workflow

The following diagram displays the workflow for creating a Weighted Grade column based on four (4) columns:

 

Weighed Grade for a Grading Period Workflow

The following diagram displays the workflow for creating a Weighted Grade column for a Grading Period, called "Term 1" based on four (3) columns:

Creating a Weighted Grade

To create a Weighted Grade column in the Grade Center, follow these steps from the Grade Center View Spreadsheet:

  1. Move the cursor over the Add Calculated Column icon in the Action Bar of the Grade Center.
  2. Select Weighted from the Action Link menu.
  3. Enter an Column Name. A required field, Column Name is formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header.

  4. Enter a GradeCenter Display Name. This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field displays 15 characters in the column header. The Grade Center is the only area where this name is used.
  5. Enter a Description. A description will help Instructors and other graders identify the Column.
  6. Select a Primary Display option from the drop-down menu. The format chosen is the primary or only (if no Secondary Display is selected) format displayed for this Weighted Grade Item in the Grade Center.
  7. Select a Secondary Display from the drop-down menu. This selection displays the secondary format for this Weighted Grade column in the Grade Center. The Secondary Display is denoted by parentheses.
  8. Select a Grading Period from the drop-down menu. This will designate to what Grading Period the column is associated.

 

Note: Grading Period and the drop-down menu will not display unless Grading Periods have previously been created. For more information on Grading Periods, see Creating Grading Periods.

 

  1. Select the items to be included in the Weighted Grade Column, and enter the percentages for each column or Category to be included in the Weighted Grade.
  1. After all columns and Categories have been selected, enter the percentage for each selection.

When a Category has been selected, several other options appear:

To remove a selected Grade Item or Category from consideration, click the red “x”.

 

Note: A Grade column that is set to "no" for the Include in Grade Center Score Calculations setting will not display in the selection list.

  1. Calculate as a running total – Select Yes to calculate the weight as a running total to include only the Columns that have been graded. Select No to include all items.
  2. Share Weighted Grade column with users. The following permissions can be selected to add the column to My Grades:
  1. Click Submit to save.

The following table explains all of the fields in the Add or Modify Weighted Grade Item page:

 

Field

Description

Column Information

Column Name

A required field, Column Name is the formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header.

Grade Center Display Name

This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will display 15 characters in the column header.

Description

A description of the Grade Center Weighted Item column.

Primary Display

The primary grade format displayed in the Grade Center. Based upon the Grading Schema, the display can be a Score, Percentage, Text, Complete/Incomplete, Default Schema (Letter), or any other defined Grading Schema.

Secondary Display

A parenthetical display of a grade format, next to the primary display in the Grade Center. The default options are the same as the Primary Display selections.

Dates

Grading Period

The Grading Period to which this Weighted Grade Item is assigned. A Grading Period must have been created for this option to be available.

Creation Date

The date on which the Grade Center Weighted Item was created.

Select Columns

Include in Weighted Grade

The Grade Center Items or Categories to be included in the Grade Center Weighted Item.

Selected Grade Columns and Categories

Displays the Columns and Categories to be included in the Grade Center Weighted Item column.

Columns to Select

All of the possible Grade Center Items and Categories to select for the Grade Center Weighted Item column.

Column Information

Displays the information for the Grade Center column, including the Category of the column, and the Points Possible.

Selected Columns

The Grade Center columns that have been selected for the Grade Center Weighted Item column.

Categories to Select

All of the possible Categories to be included in the Grade Center Weighted Item column.

Category Information

Displays all of the highlighted Category’s Grade Center columns.

Calculate weight as a running total

A running total will only include items that have been graded. By not choosing to use a running total, non-graded items will be included in the calculations with a value of 0.

Include Column in GradeCenter Score calculations

Makes the column available for use in other calculations.

Show Column in My Grades

Selecting this displays the Grade Center Weighted Item column to users.

Show Statistics to Students

Shows the Weighted Grade Column statistics in My Grades.

 

About Total Points Calculations

A Grade Center Total Points column is a grade based on the cumulative points received, related to the points allowed.

The following items can be selected to create a Total Points calculation and its column:

For example, an Instructor may create a column to determine the final grade for the first quarter by creating a Grade Center Total Points column that includes all of the columns in the first quarter Grading Period. Alternatively, an Instructor can create a Grade Center Total Points column that displays the percentages of a particular Grade Center column, or a Category or Categories.

 

Note: Any Grade Columns with text as the primary display cannot be used in the Total Points calculation.

Creating a Total Points Column

To create a Total Points column in the Grade Center, follow these steps:

  1. Move the cursor over the Add Calculated Column icon in the Action Bar of the Grade Center.
  2. Select Total from the Action Link menu.
  3. Enter an Column Name. A required field, Column Name is formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field displays 15 characters in the column header.
  4. Enter a Grade Center Display Name. This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header. The Grade Center is the only area where this name is used.
  5. Enter a Description. A description will help Instructors and other graders identify the Column.
  6. Select a Primary Display option from the drop-down menu. The format chosen is the primary or only (if no Secondary Display is selected) format displayed for this Total Points Item in the Grade Center.
  7. Select a Secondary Display from the drop-down menu. This selection displays the secondary format for this Total Points column in the Grade Center. The Secondary Display is denoted by parentheses.
  8. Select a Grading Period from the drop-down menu. This will designate to what Grading Period the column is associated.

 

Note: Grading Period and the drop-down menu will not display unless Grading Periods have previously been created. For more information on Grading Periods, see Creating Grading Periods.

  1. Select the items to be included in the Total Points column. Possible selections include the following:

To remove a selected item from consideration, click the red “x”.

Note: A Column that is set to "no" for the Include in Grade Center calculations setting will not display in the selection list.

  1. Calculate as a running total – Select Yes to calculate the weight as a running total to include only the Columns that have been graded. Select No to include all items.
  2. Share Total Points column with users. The following selections can be made to share column information with users:
  1. Click Submit to save.

The following table explains all of the fields in the Add or Modify Total Points column page:

 

Field

Description

Column Information

Column Name

A required field, Column Name is the formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center View Spreadsheet if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the Column header.

Grade Center Display Name

This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will display 15 characters in the column header.

Description

A description of the Grade Center Total Points column

Primary Display

The primary grade format displayed in the Grade Center. Based upon the Grading Schema, the display can be a Score, Percentage, Text, Complete/Incomplete, Default Schema (Letter), or any other defined Grading Schema.

Secondary Display

A parenthetical display of a grade format, next to the primary display in the Grade Center. The default options are the same as the Primary Display selections.

Dates

Grading Period

The Grading Period to which this Total Points column is assigned. A Grading Period must have been created for it to display.

Creation Date

The date on which the Total Item was created; this cannot be edited.

Select Columns

Include in Total

The Grade Center columns or Categories to be included in the Total Item.

All Grade Columns

All of the columns created in the Grade Center.

All Grade Columns in Grading Period

All of the columns in a particular Grading Period.

Selected Grade Columns and Categories

Displays the possible columns and Categories to be included in the Grade Center Total Points column.

Columns to Select

All of the possible Grade Center columns to select for the Grade Center Total Points column.

Column Information

Displays the information for the Grade Center column highlighted, including the Category of the column, and the Points Possible.

Selected Columns

The Grade Center gradable items that have been selected for the Grade Center Total Points column.

Categories to Select

All of the possible Categories to be included in the Grade Center Total Points column.

Category Information

Displays all of the highlighted Category’s Grade Center columns.

Calculate weight as a running total

A running total will only include columns that have been graded. By not choosing to use a running total, non-graded columns will be included in the calculations with a value of 0.

Include Column in Grade Center Score calculations

Makes the column available for use in other calculations.

Show Column in My Grades

Selecting this displays the Grade Center Total Points column to users.

Show Statistics to Students

Shows the Total Points column statistics in My Grades.

About Minimum/Maximum Columns

A Minimum or Maximum Grade column displays either the minimum or maximum grade for a selection of Columns. This column can be displayed to the Students or just the Instructor.

In creating a Minimum/Maximum Grade column, the Instructor can select from the following:

For instance, an Instructor may choose to find the minimum scores of all the Tests from a Grading Period and display it only to the Instructor.

Note: Any Columns with text as the primary display cannot be displayed as the Minimum or Maximum.

Creating a Minimum/Maximum Column

To create a Minimum/Maximum Grade Column, follow these steps:

  1. Move the cursor over the Add Calculated Column icon in the Action Bar of the Grade Center.
  2. Select Minimum/Maximum from the Action Link menu.
  3. Enter an Column Name. A required field, Column Name is formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will display 15 characters in the Column header.

  4. Enter a GradeCenter Display Name. This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header. The Grade Center is the only area where this name is used.
  5. Enter a Description. A description will help Instructors and other graders identify the column.
  6. Select a Primary Display option from the drop-down menu. The format chosen is the primary or only (if no Secondary Display is selected) format displayed for this Minimum/Maximum Grade in the Grade Center.
  7. Select a Secondary Display from the drop-down menu. This selection displays the secondary format for this Minimum/Maximum Grade column in the Grade Center. The Secondary Display is denoted by parentheses.
  8. Select a Grading Period from the drop-down menu. This will designate to what Grading Period the column is associated.

Note: Grading Period and the drop-down menu will not display unless Grading Periods have previously been created. For more information on Grading Periods, see Creating Grading Periods.

  1. Select the Calculation Type Minimum or Maximum.
  2. Select the items to be included in the Minimum/Maximum Grade Column. Possible selections include:

To remove a selected item from consideration, click the red “x”.

Note: A column that is set to "no" for the Include in Grade Center Score Calculations setting will not display in the selection list.

  1. Calculate as a running total – Select Yes to calculate the weight as a running total to include only the Columns that have been graded. Select No to include all Columns.
  2. Share Minimum/Maximum Grade column with users. The following selections can be made to share column information with users:
  1. Click Submit to save.

The following table explains all of the fields in the Add or Modify Minimum/Maximum Grade column page:

Field

Description

Column Information

Column Name

A required field, Column Name is the formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header.

Grade Center Display Name

This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header.

Description

A description of the Grade Center Minimum/Maximum Item column.

Primary Display

The primary grade format displayed in the Grade Center. Based upon the Grading Schema, the display can be a Score, Percentage, Text, Complete/Incomplete, Default Schema (Letter), or any other defined Grading Schema.

Secondary Display

A parenthetical display of a grade format, next to the primary display in the Grade Center. The default options are the same as the Primary Display selections.

Dates

Grading Period

The Grading Period to which this Minimum/Maximum Grade Item is assigned. A Grading Period must have been created for it to display.

Creation Date

The date on which the Minimum/Maximum Item was created; this cannot be edited.

Select Columns

Calculation Type

The type—either the Minimum or Maximum grade—to display in this column.

Include in Minimum/Maximum Grade calculation

The Grade Center columns or Categories to be included in the Minimum/Maximum Item.

All Gradable Columns

Includes all of the columns created in the Grade Center.

All Gradable Columns in Grading Period

Includes all of the columns in a particular Grading Period.

Selected Grade Columns and Categories

Displays the possible columns and Categories to be included in the Minimum/Maximum Grade Item column.

Columns to Select

All of the possible Grade Center columns to select for the Minimum/Maximum Grade column.

Selected Columns

The Grade Center columns that have been selected for the Minimum/Maximum Item calculation.

Categories to Select

All of the possible Categories to be included in the Minimum/Maximum Item calculation.

Category Information

Displays all of the highlighted Category’s Grade Center columns.

Calculate weight as a running total

A running total will only include items that have been graded. By not choosing to use a running total, non-graded items will be included in the calculations with a value of 0.

Include Column in GradeCenter Score calculations

Selecting this includes the column in other Grade Center calculations.

Show Column in My Grades

Selecting this displays the Grade Center Minimum/Maximum Grade column to users.

Show Statistics to Students

Shows the Minimum/Maximum Grade column statistics in My Grades.

About Average Grade Columns

An Average Grade column displays the average for any number of quantities. An Average Grade Column can include any the following non-text columns:

For example, an Instructor can display the average for all Tests, or display the average grade for each Student for a grading period.

 

Note: Any Columns with Text as the primary display cannot be averaged.

Any Categories that contain items that are set to No for the Include in Grade Center calculations setting will ignore those items when figuring the Average Grade.

Creating an Average Grade Column

To create an Average Grade and its column in the Grade Center, follow these steps from the Grade Center View Spreadsheet.

  1. Move the cursor over the Add Calculated Columnicon in the Action Bar of the Grade Center.
  2. Select Average from the Action Link menu.
  3. Enter an Column Name. A required field, Column Name is formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the Column header.

  4. Enter a GradeCenter Display Name. This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will display 15 characters in the column header. The Grade Center is the only area where this name is used.
  5. Enter a Description. A description will help Instructors and other graders identify the column.
  6. Select a Primary Display option from the drop-down menu. The format chosen is the primary or only (if no Secondary Display is selected) format displayed for this Average Grade column in the Grade Center.
  7. Select a Secondary Display from the drop-down menu. This selection displays the secondary format for this Average Grade column in the Grade Center. The Secondary Display is denoted by parentheses.
  8. Select a Grading Period from the drop-down menu. This will designate to what Grading Period the column is attributed.

 

Note: Grading Period and the drop-down menu will not display unless Grading Periods have previously been created. For more information on Grading Periods, see Creating Grading Periods.

  1. Select the columns to be included in the Average Grade column. Possible selections include:

When a Category has been selected, several other options appear:

Select a Grading Period for the Category using the drop-down menu. This will only be available if a Grading Period has been created.

Select how to weigh Columns within the CategoryEqually or Proportionally. Choosing Equally applies equal value to all gradable items within a Category. Choosing Proportionally applies the appropriate value to a Grade Item based on its points compared to other Columns in the Category.

Decide whether to drop high or low grades within the Category or use the lowest or highest value in the category.

To remove a selected item from consideration, click the red “x”.

 

Note: A Grade Column that is set to "no" for the Include in Grade Center Score Calculations setting will not display in the selection list.

 

  1. Select to Calculate Average as a running total. Selecting to calculate the average as a running total will only include the Grade Columns that have been graded. Select Yes or No.
  2. Share Average Grade column with users. The following selections can be made to share column information with users:
  1. Click Submit to save.

The following table explains all of the fields in the Add or Modify Average Grade column page:

 

Field

Description

Column Information

Column Name

A required field, Column Name is the formal name for the Item, and is displayed in the Grade Center if no Grade Center Display Name is entered. This field will display 15 characters in the column header.

Grade Center Display Name

This appears as the column header in the Grade Center. This field will only display the first 15 characters in the column header.

Description

A description of the Grade Center Average Grade column.

Primary Display

The primary grade format displayed in the Grade Center. Based upon the Grading Schema, the display can be a Score, Percentage, Text, Complete/Incomplete, Default Schema (Letter), or any other defined Grading Schema.

Secondary Display

A parenthetical display of a grade format, next to the primary display in the Grade Center. The default options are the same as the Primary Display selections.

Dates

Grading Period

The Grading Period to which this Average Grade Column is assigned. A Grading Period must have been created for it to display.

Creation Date

The date on which the Grade Center Average Grade column was created.

Select Columns

Include in Average

The Grade Center columns or Categories to be included in the Average Grade Column.

All Gradable Columns

Includes all of the columns created in the Grade Center.

All Gradable Columns in Grading Period

Includes all of the columns in a particular Grading Period.

Selected Grade Columns and Categories

Displays the possible columns and Categories to be included in the Average Grade column.

Columns to Select

All of the possible Grade Center columns to select for the Average Grade column.

Selected Columns

The Grade Center columns that have been selected for the Average calculation.

Column Information

Displays the information for the Grade Center column highlighted, including the Category of the column, and the Points Possible.

Categories to Select

All of the possible Categories to be included in the Average Grade calculation.

Category Information

Displays all of the highlighted Category’s Grade columns.

Include Column in Grade Center calculations

Selecting this includes the column in other Grade Center calculations.

Show Column in My Grades

Selecting this displays the Grade Center Average Grade column to users.

Show Statistics to Students

Shows the Average Grade column statistics in My Grades.